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Table 1 Novel Neuromodulation Methods of Hemorrhagic Shock

From: Neuromodulation as a new avenue for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock

Neuromodulation Intervention Animal Species Observed Effect Author/Year
Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) VNS preceding T/HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Prevention of T/HS-induced gut injury
Prevents formation of toxic lymph
Levy et al. 2013
VNS preceding HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Decreased gut and lung permeability
Decreased pulmonary neutrophil sequestration
Levy et al. 2012
VNS preceding T/HS Male Balb/c Mice Prevention of T/HS-induced changes in gut barrier integrity
Decrease in T/HS-induced lung injury
Decreased binding of NF-kB
Reys et al. 2013
VNS following T/HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Reduction in histologic gut injury
Reduction in ML flow
Morishita et al. 2014
VNS following T/HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Prevention of changes in ML exosome protein payload
Limitation of systemic inflammatory response
Williams et al. 2019
VNS following HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Attenuation of peak serum TNF-alpha amounts
Inhibition of liver NF-KappaB expression
Prevented the development of hypotension
Li et al. 2005
VNS following HS Male Wistar Rats Increase in survival time
Reversion of hypotension
Modulation of inflammatory response
Guarini et al. 2003
VNS during resuscitation Male Wistar Rats Decreased inflammatory response to HS
Improved coagulation
Rezende-Neto et al. 2014
Electroacupuncture (EA) EA at ST36 + Delayed Fluid Replacement Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Inhibition of plasma adrenal gland concentration increase
Enhances the therapeutic effect of DFR
Wang et al. 2018
EA at ST36 + Delayed Fluid Replacement Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Improves blood pressure
Raises early survival rate of HS rats
Maintains intestinal barrier function
Improves the degree of intestinal ischemia
Shi et al. 2013
EA at ST36 following HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Attenuation of systemic inflammatory response
Intestinal barrier protection
Organ function improvement
Survival rate improvement
Du et al. 2013
EA at ST36 + Delayed Fluid Replacement Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Protective effects upon hepatic ischemic injury following HS Zhong et al. 2012
EA at ST36 following HS Male Mongrel Dogs Improvement of hemodynamics
Attenuation of cytokine and lactate blood concentration in HS.
Suo et al. 2011
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (TNS) Percutaneous TNS following HS Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Modulation of both SNS and PNS
Pressor response
Improved cerebral perfusion
Decreased inflammation
Li et al. 2019
Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (PhNS) PhNS in combination with ITV Female Swine Improvement in cardiac preload and key hemodynamic variables Samniah et al. 2003