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Table 1 Qualified modified approach to grading of evidence

From: A review of the bioelectronic implications of stimulation of the peripheral nervous system for chronic pain conditions

Level IStrong2 or more relevant high quality RCT”s for effectiveness, or 4 or more relevant high quality observational studies of large case series for assessment of preventive measures, adverse, consequences, and effectiveness of the other measures
Level IIModerateAt least 1 relevant high quality RCT or multiple relevant moderate or low quality RCT”s or at least 2high quality relevant observational studies or large case series for assessment of preventive measures, adverse, consequences, and effectiveness of the other measures
Level IIIFairAt least 1 relevant high quality nonrandomized trial or observational study with multiple moderate or low quality observational studies, or at least on high quality relevant observational study or large case series for assessment of preventive measures, adverse, consequences, and effectiveness of the other measures
Level IVLimitedMultiple moderate or low quality relevant observational studies, or moderate quality observational studies of large case series for assessment of preventive measures, adverse, consequences, and effectiveness of the other measures
Level VConsensus BasedOpinion or consensus of large group of clinicians for effectiveness as well as to assess preventive measures, adverse, consequences, and effectiveness of the other measures