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Table 2 Peripheral nerve stimulation: case series/reports

From: A review of the bioelectronic implications of stimulation of the peripheral nervous system for chronic pain conditions

StudyEtiologyStudy designNerves TargetedResultsConclusion
Huntoon & Burgher (2009)Upper and Lower extremity neuropathic painCase series
N = 8
Median Radial Ulnar Peroneal
Post Tibial
43% patients reported > 80% improvement in their baseline painLevel IV
Minimally invasive ultrasound guided peripheral nerve stimulation provided effective pain control in patients with positive trial
Simopoulos et al. (2010)Chronic MigraineCase ReportBilateral AuriculotemporalNRS reduction from 9 to 5 in 16 month F/u
MIDAS improvement from Grade IV to II
Level V
Auriculotemporal nerve stimulation may be a promising therapy for patients with temporal migraine
Vaisman et al. (2012)Intractable Trigeminal Autonomic CephalgiaCase series
N = 5
Supratrochlear
Supraorbital
-VAS reduction from 8.9 to 1.6
− 3 patients reported complete wean off opioids
Level IV
Supraorbital and supratrochlear stimulation is effective and safe as therapy for trigeminal autonomic cephalgia
Hann & Sharan, (2013)Chronic MigraineCase series
N = 14
Occipital
Supraorbital
71% reduction in severity and frequency of Headaches
50% resolution of headache symptoms
Level IV
Dual Occipital nerve and supraorbital nerve stimulation may improve frequency of pain relief, neurological symptoms in chronic migraine
Reverberi et al. (2014)Causalgia
Neuropathic pain
Case series
N = 15
Suprascapular
Mandibular
Occipital
Brachial Plexus
Ulnar
Median
Radial
Intercostal
Post Tibial
Common Peroneal
After avg. 9.3 months follow up:
- NRS score down to 3.46
- Opioid consumption reduced by 50%
Level IV
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation is an effective modality in managing severe neuropathic pain following multiple joint surgeries that are complicated by causalgia.
Reed et al. (2015)Hemiplegic MigraineCase Series
N = 4
Occipital
Supraorbital
− 92% reduction of headache frequency
− 44% reduction in VAS
− 96% reduction in drug usage
Level IV
Concordant combined occipital and supraorbital nerve stimulation was preferred by patients and suggest efficacy in treating both pain and motor aura in hemiplegic migraine
Oswald et al. (2019)MononeuropathiesCase Series
N = 39
Axillary
Genitofemoral
Intercostal
Ilioinguinal
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous
Peroneal
Saphenous
Suprascapular
Sural
Tibial
71% reduction in pain scores
72% improvement in activity
Level IV
Peripheral nerve stimulators are new minimally invasive neuromodulation modality that shows promising early results
Stevanato et al. (2014)Brachial Plexus InjuryCase Series
N = 7
Brachial PlexusLong term follow up at 6 months and 12 months reported 76.2 and 71.5% reduction in NRS scores respectively.Level IV
Surgical Implantation of quadripolar electrode leads provide long term successful pain relief in brachial plexus injuries
Wilson et al. (2014)Subacromial Impingement SyndromeCase series
N = 10
Axillary NerveSignificant reduction in pain compared to baselineLevel IV
Peripheral Nerve stimulation is effective is treating chronic subacromial impingement syndrome