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Table 3 Peripheral nerve stimulation: prospective studies

From: A review of the bioelectronic implications of stimulation of the peripheral nervous system for chronic pain conditions

StudyEtiologyStudy designOutcome MeasuresResultsConclusion
Deer et al. (2010)Upper Extremity mononeuropathyCase series
N = 10
Median nerve
VAS scores
−20% of the patients reported 40–100% pain relief
No adverse effects occurred
Level II
Temporary implant resulted in both pain reduction and reduced use of oral opioid pain medication during the 5-day stimulation period.
Saper et al. ONSTIM Study (2011)Chronic Intractable MigraineRCT
N = 66
Occipital Nerve
-Headache days
-Pain intensity
Responder defined as > 50% reduction of headache days
39% responder rate in Adjustable stim arm
6% responder rate in preset stim arm
Level II
Occipital nerve stimulation is effective in treating intractable Chronic Migraine
Rauck et al. (2014)Post Amputation PainProspective Open Label Feasibility Study
N = 16
Sciatic and Femoral Nerves
-Brief Pain Inventory
-Beck Depression Inventory
At the end of 4wks subjects reported improvement in their quality of life and decrease in Beck Depression Inventory scoreLevel III
Peripheral nerve stimulation can be effective in achieving significant pain relief and improvements in quality of life in patients suffering with post amputation pain syndrome
Wilson et al. (2014)Chronic Hemiplegic Shoulder painProspective randomized control trial
N = 25
Intramuscular Deltoid, axillary nerve
-Brief Pain -Inventory
SF 3
At 16wks, the mean severity rating of BPI index decreased from 7.5 to 3.2 in the peripheral nerve stimulation armLevel II
Short term peripheral nerve stimulation is safe and efficacious treatment for shoulder pain.
Deer et al. (2016)Chronic Neuropathic painProspective multicenter randomized double-blind partial crossover study
N = 94
Upper and lower extremity and trucal nerves
-Quality of life
-Patient Satisfaction
-Pain Medication
Avg pain reduction of 27% in the treatment group as compared to 2% in the control groupLevel II
Peripheral nerve stimulation is safe and effective treatment strategy to target neuropathic pain of peripheral nerve origin
Ilfeld et al. (2017)Total Knee arthroplastyProspective open label feasibility study
Femoral and Sciatic nerve
VASReduction in VAS scores by an average of 63% at rest, with 4 of 5 subjects having relief of > 50%Level III
Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation may be a practical modality for the treatment of postsurgical pain