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Table 1 Bioelectronic technologies for cortical stimulation in focal epilepsies

From: Cortical stimulation in pharmacoresistant focal epilepsies

Technology TMS
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
tDCS
transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
RNS
Responsive NeuroStimulation
CSCS
Chronic Subthreshold Cortical Stimulation
ECS
Epicranial Cortical Stimulation
Invasiveness Noninvasive Noninvasive Invasive,
Intracranial
Invasive,
Intracranial
Invasive,
Extracranial
Placement of electrode/coil Cutaneous Cutaneous Subdural Subdural Epicranial, Subgaleal
Stimulation frequency 0.5–1 Hz Direct current 100–200 Hz 2 Hz 100 Hz, 8 Hz
Mode of actions LTD Hyperpolarization,
LTD
Seizure termination LTD Seizure termination,
LTD
Clinical trials Lefaucheur et al. 2020; Mishra et al. 2020 Lefaucheur et al. 2017; VanHaerents et al. 2020; Yang et al. 2020 Morrell and Group RNSSiES 2011 Lundstrom et al. 2019 EASEE-II
PIMIDES-I n.d.