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Table 1 Subfields of Bioelectronic Medicine

From: Building a bioelectronic medicine movement 2019: insights from leaders in industry, academia, and research

Subfields of Bioelectronic Medicine
SubfieldDescriptionExamples of Diseases Treated
Cardiac Rhythm Management
 Cardiac Rhythm ManagementPacemakers and other devices to monitor and regulate heart rhythmBradycardia, tachycardia, heart failure
 ElectrophysiologyCatheter-based treatments for cardiac arrythmiasAtrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia
Cochlear and Retinal Implants
 Cochlear ImplantsImplants that capture, digitize, and transmit soundHearing loss/impairment
 Retinal ImplantsImplants that capture, digitize, and transmit visual informationRetinal degenerative diseases
Central Nervous System (CNS)
 Spinal Cord StimulationDevices that stimulate specific nerve fibers in the spinal cordChronic pain
 Deep Brain StimulationDevices that stimulate regions in the brain to address neurological conditionsTreatment-resistant epilepsy, Parkinson’s, major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, PTSD
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
 Vagus Nerve StimulationDevices that stimulate specific areas of the vagus nerve – the body’s “neural highway” – to address a range of conditionsRheumatoid arthritis, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, heart failure
 Sacral Nerve StimulationDevices that stimulate the sacral nerve to manipulate the bladder or sphincterOveractive bladder, urinary incontinence