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Table 1 Summary of studies investigating the effects of brain stimulation on electrophysiological correlates of addiction

From: Biomarkers and neuromodulation techniques in substance use disorders

Reference Substance Subject Stimulation Study design Outcomes
Deep Brain Stimulation
 Kuhn et al. (2011) Alcohol human Nacc Flanker task ERN↑ during 1 year of DBS
 Ross et al. (2016) Food rat 500 msec trains, 20/130 Hz, 250–400 μA, monopolar, biphasic into CeA Self-administration of sucrose pellets DBS vs. sham: decreased proportion of responsive neurons to reward-related food at both frequencies
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
 Conti and Nakamura-Palacios (2014) Crack-cocaine human 20 min, 2 mA, 35 cm2, 1x
left cathodal/right anodal vs. sham stim over DLPFC/ACC
Go/NoGo task with visual drug-related vs. neutral cues tDCS vs. sham: N2↓ after drug-related images
 Conti et al. (2014) Crack-cocaine human 20 min, 2 mA, 35 cm2, 1x per day over 5 days, left cathodal/right anodal vs. sham stim over DLPFC Go/NoGo task with visual drug-related vs. neutral cues 1st day
tDCS vs. sham: P3↑ after neutral, P3↓ after drug-related cues in DLPFC
5th day
tDCS vs. sham: P3↑ after neutral and drug-related cues in DLPFC, P3↑ after drug-related cues vs. P3↓ after neutral cues in FPC, OFC, ACC
 da Silva et al. (2013) Alcohol human 20 min, 2 mA, 35 cm2, 1x per week over 5 weeks
anodal vs. sham stim over left DLPFC
Go/NoGo task with visual drug-related vs. neutral cues N2↑ sham & tDCS, neutral and drug-related cues
P3↑ sham, neutral cues
P3↓ sham & tDCS, drug-related cues
Density of activation ↓ after tDCS vs. sham in FPC, OFC, ACC, DLPFC
 den Uyl et al. (2016) Alcohol human 15 min, 1 mA, 35 cm2, 1x per day over 3 days
anodal over left DLPFC/cathodal over right supraorbital area vs. sham stim
Alcohol oddball task with visual drug-related vs. neutral cues tDCS vs. sham: P3↓ after drug-related cues
 Nakamura-Palacios et al. (2012) Alcohol human 10 min, 1 mA, 35 cm2, 1x
anodal over left DLPFC/cathodal over right supradeltoid area vs. sham stim
passive listening to auditory drug-related vs. neutral cues tDCS vs. sham: P3↑ after drug-related cues
 Nakamura-Palacios et al. (2016) Alcohol
Crack-Cocaine
human 20 min (Crack-users) or 2 × 13 min (Alcoholics), 2 mA, 35 cm2, 1x per day over 5 days, left cathodal/right anodal vs. sham stim over DLPFC Go/NoGo task with visual drug-related vs. neutral cues Density of P3 activation ↑ after tDCS vs. sham after drug-related cues predominantly in vmPFC
 Lapenta et al. (2014) Food human 20 min, 2 mA, 35 cm2, 1x
left cathodal/right anodal vs. sham stim over DLPFC
Go/NoGo task with visual food-related vs. neutral cues tDCS vs. sham: N2↓, P3↑ in NoGo condition