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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and primary imaging outcomes of deep brain stimulation therapies in select neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders

From: Neuroimaging evaluation of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of representative neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders

Imaging studies Samples Disorder Target Frequency (Hz) Pulse width (μs) Amplitude (V) Duration (months) Modality Treatment-induced imaging outcomes of interest
Mure et al., 2011 9 PD Vim 160 ± 24 100 ± 42 3.0 ± 0.6 NA FDG PET Decreased activity of tremor-related pattern with metabolic increase in the cerebellum/dentate nucleus and primary motor cortex, and the caudate/putamen.
  9 PD STN 165 ± 30 78 ± 19 3.1 ± 0.6 NA FDG PET Decreased activity of motor-related pattern with metabolic abnormality; decreased activity of the tremor-related pattern but to a less degree than with Vim DBS.
Horn et al., 2019 20 PD STN NA NA NA 30 ± 21 rsfMRI Increased overall functional connectivity in the motor network by enhancing the thalamo-cortical connectivity while reducing the striatal control over basal ganglia and cerebellum.
Furukawa et al., 2020 21 PD STN 136 ± 12 63 ± 9 2.7 ± 0.6 3–6 IMP SPECT CBF decreased in the prefrontal and cingulate cortex, but increased in the left angular/supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. Decreased CBF in the middle cingulate or supplementary motor cortices associated with declined drawing performance after DBS.
Gratwicke et al., 2018 6 PDD NBM 20 60 1.5–3.0 1.5 rsfMRI No differences in changes of functional connectivity in the default mode network between the active and sham DBS.
Gratwicke et al., 2020 6 DLB NBM 20 60 2.0–3.0 1.5 rsfMRI Differences of functional connectivity in the default mode network and the fronto-parietal network seen between the active and sham DBS in four patients but not significant with the random-effect model.
Maltete et al., 2021 6 DLB NBM 20–100 60–90 2.5–3.0 3 FDG PET Increased metabolism in the superior lingual gyrus with the active versus sham DBS.
Kuhn et al., 2015 6 AD NBM 10–20 90–150 2.0–4.5 12 FDG PET Increased temporal, parietal and amygdalo-hippocampal metabolism in four patients at the trend-levels.
Smith et al., 2012 5 AD Fornix 130 90 3.0–3.5 12 FDG PET Increased metabolism in a frontal-tempo-parieto-striato-thalamic network and a fronto-temporo-parieto-occipito-hippocampal network correlating with clinical outcome measures.
Sankar et al., 2015 6 T1 MRI Slower rate of hippocampal atrophy with its volume changes correlated strongly with changes in hippocampal metabolism, and volume changes in the fornix and mammillary bodies.
Lozano et al., 2016 42 AD Fornix 130 90 3 12 FDG PET Increased metabolism in the temporo-parietal cortex, hippocampus, cuneus, and cerebellum at 6 months but not 12 months.
Le Jeune et al., 2010 10 OCD STN 130 60 <  4.0 3 FDG PET Decreased metabolism in the left cingulate and frontal medial gyri with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal changes correlating with improved OCD symptoms.
Suetens et al., 2014 16 OCD VC/VS 100–130 210–450 4.0–10.5 1–4 FDG PET Decreased metabolism in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortices with the occipital metabolic changes correlating with improved OCD symptoms.
Dougherty et al., 2016 6 OCD VC/VS 135 90 4.0 NA H2O PET Increased CBF in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlating with improved depressive symptoms (ventral contact); Increased CBF in the thalamus, putamen and pallidum (dorsal contact).
Baldermann et al., 2019 22 OCD ALIC/NAC NA NA NA 12 DTI MRI Greater anatomic connectivity between stimulation sites and medial/lateral prefrontal cortex reliably predicing improvement in OCD symptoms. A frontothalamic pathway underlying favorable clinical outcome.
Fridgeirsson et al., 2020 10 OCD ALIC 130–185 90–150 3.5–6.2 >  12 rsfMRI Decreased amygdala-insula functional connectivity correlating with improvement in mood and anxiety following DBS. DBS increased the effect of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex on the amygdala, and decreased the effect of the amygdala on the insula.
Kosel et al., 2011 15 MD VNS 20 500 Output current: 1.2 ± 0.4 mA
Stim cycles: 30 s / 5 min
2.5 HMPAO SPECT CBF decreased in the right posterior cingulate area, the lingual gyrus and the left insula, but increased in the left dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.
Conway et al., 2013 13 MD VNS 21.5 ± 3.8 332 ± 142 Output current: 1.2 ± 0.4 mA
Stim cycles: 30 s / 5 min
3–12 FDG PET Decreased metabolism in the right rostral cingulate and DLPFC at 3 months versus baseline; increased metabolism in the substantia nigra at 12 months.
Yu et al., 2018 61 Epilepsy VNS NA NA Output current: 1.2 ± 0.4 mA
Stim cycles: 30 s / 5 min
49 ± 33 FDG PET Decreased preoperative metabolic connectivity in the brainstem, cerebellum, putamen, cingulate gyrus and insula in the responders 12 months after VNS.
Ibrahim et al., 2017 29 Epilepsy VNS NA NA NA 12 rsrfMRI Greater functional connectivity of the thalamus to the ACC and left insula associated with stronger VNS efficacy in the responders with a predication accuracy of 86–88%.
Mithani et al., 2019 56 Epilepsy VNS NA NA NA 25 ± 23 DTI MRI MEG Increased fractional anisotropy in the left thalamocortical, limbic, and association fibers; increased functional connectivity in the left thalamic, insular, and temporal areas in the responders with a prediction accuracy of 83–90%.
  1. Some of the data are provided as mean ± standard deviations. This table includes two different studies on the same trial (Smith et al., 2012; Sankar et al., 2015)