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Table 2 Overview of non-invasive VNS configuration and therapeutic application

From: Overview of therapeutic applications of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: a motivation for novel treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus

nVNS device Condition Waveform Amplitude Pulse width (ms) Frequency (Hz) Train duration
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Cluster headache (Silberstein et al. 2016) 5kHz sine wave burst 24V/60mA 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 120ms
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Cluster headache (Goadsby et al. 2018) - 24V 5x200 μS (1ms) 5000 3x120s
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Chronic headache (Gaul et al. 2016) 5kHz sine wave burst Max. 24V/60mA 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 3x120s (5min rest)
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Healthy, neural activation validation (Nonis et al. 2017) 5kHz sine wave burst 6V-18 V, max. output 60 mA 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 3x120s (5min rest)
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Episodic & chronic migraines (Kinfe et al. 2015) 5kHz sine wave burst 0V-24V 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 2x120s
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Menstrual migraine (Grazzi et al. 2016) 5kHz sine wave burst Max. 24V/60mA 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 2x120s
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Acute asthma (Steyn et al. 2013) - - - - 2x60s (30min rest)
gammaCore (TC-VNS) Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (Tarn et al. 2019) 5kHz sine wave burst Low voltage 5x200 μS (1ms) 25 90s
Non-specific (TA-VNS) Chronic Pelvic Pain (Napadow et al. 2012) Rectangular pulses Moderate to strong (non-painful) sensation 450 μS (1ms) 30 0.5s
Nemos (TA-VNS) Pain Perception (Busch et al. 2013) Modified monophasic rectangle impulse 0.25 - 10 mA (constant tingling sensation) 250 μS 25 -
Non-specific (TA-VNS) Pain Perception (Janner et al. 2018) Square impluses delivered in blocks of 9 impulses Constant tingling sensation 2x200 μS (s) 100 -
Non-specific (TA-VNS) Migraine (Zhang et al.) - 1.5-3mA 0.2ms 1 -
Nemos (TA-VNS) Chronic Migraine (Straube et al. 2015) - Tingling, non-painful sensation 250 μS 1/25 30s on, 30s off (20min)
Non-specific (TA-VNS) Migraine (Garcia et al. 2017) Rectangular pulses Moderate to strong (non-painful) sensation 450 μS 30 0.5s
Non-specific (TA-VNS) Rheumatoid arthritis (Addorisio et al. 2019) - Horizontal: 0.008" Vertical: 0.005" - 168 -
  1. Abbreviations: nVNS, non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation; TC-VNS, transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation; TA-VNS, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation