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Table 1 Functional outcomes after SCS and activity-based training

From: Motor improvements enabled by spinal cord stimulation combined with physical training after spinal cord injury: review of experimental evidence in animals and humans

Functional outcomes Reported with
SCS on
Reported in Time of first observation after surgery (SCS on) Reported with SCS off Reported in
Voluntary muscle contraction 8/8 participants Angeli et al. 2018; Gill et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018 Day 1 4/8 participants
AIS B/C/D
Angeli et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018
Single joint movements of paralyzed joints 8/8 participants Angeli et al. 2018; Gill et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018 Day 1 2/8 participants
AIS C/D
Wagner et al. 2018
Standing 8/8 participants Angeli et al. 2018; Gill et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018 Week 1 4/8 participants
AIS C/D
Angeli et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018
Treadmill walking 8/8 participants Angeli et al. 2018; Gill et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018 3/8 > Week 2
5/8 > Week 10
n.r.  
Overground walking 6/8 participants
(with assistance e.g. walker)
Angeli et al. 2018; Gill et al. 2018; Wagner et al. 2018 > Week 20 2/8 participants
AIS C/Da
(with assistance e.g. walker)
Wagner et al. 2018
  1. Included studies: Angeli et al. 2018 (NCT02339233), Gill et al. 2018 (NCT02592668), Wagner et al. 2018 (NCT02936453). Included participants (N = 8): 3 AIS A (motor and sensory complete), 2 AIS B (motor complete), 3 AIS C/D (motor incomplete)
  2. aOne participant in Wagner et al. 2018 achieved steps overground without additional support 3 months after rehabilitation (parallel bars present for safety but not touched)