(A) This panel quantifies the circle drawing task by measuring the length and ratio of the major and minor axes of the first drawing (as in Figure 3A for example) which is an ellipse and the drawing after training in which the ratio approaches unity as the patient can now coordinate and control the elbow and shoulder and can draw a recognizable circle. The tightly packed squares represent the ratio of the initial circle drawn by each of 117 patients with chronic stroke. The diamonds, almost all above the line of admission squares, represent the ratio of the axes for the circles that the patients drew at discharge. The drawings are significantly improved (N = 117; p < 0.05). (B) This panel demonstrates the increased independent control of elbow or the shoulder as a decrease in the correlation of the movement of the joints. The line of squares indicates the admission correlation of shoulder and elbow movement for the same 117 patients with chronic stroke. Normal correlation values are around 0.2 (unpublished results). The diamonds represent the discharge correlation and for most patients there is a return toward normal values (N = 117; p < 0.05) (15). The panels are adapted from (15): L Dipietro, HI Krebs, SE Fasoli, BT Volpe, J Stein, C Bever, N Hogan. Changing Motor Synergies in Chronic Stroke. J. Neuro-physiol. 2007;98:757-68. See https://doi.org/jn.physiology.org/content/9872/757.long.