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Table 1 Reported effects on nerve injury recovery after electrical stimulation

From: Chronic Electrical Nerve Stimulation as a Therapeutic Intervention for Peripheral Nerve Repair

Authors Journal (year) Type of current used, site of stimulation and parameters Type of injury Outcomes
Hoffman H Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. (1952) AC, 6.3 V, 50–100 cycles, 1.5 m A, 0–5,000 Ω variable resistance Spinal cord injury Enhanced reinnervation and sprouting
Maehlen J, NjåA J. Physiol. (1982) Preganglionic stimulation for 1 h immediately after the partial denervation with 100 pulses at 20 Hz every 25 s Thoraco-cervical sympathetic trunk transection Increased rate of sprouting
Nix WA, Hopf HC Brain Res. (1983) AC, 0.2 ms duration, frequency of 4 pulses per second (pps), applied (24 h daily) for 4 wks, and stimulation started 1 d postoperatively Sciatic nerve transection Improved electrophysiological recovery
Pockett S, Gavin R Neurosci. Lett. (1985) AC, proximal stump, 0.1-ms pulses, supramaximal voltage Sciatic nerve crush Improvement in toe spread function
McDevitt, et al. Brain Res. (1987) DC, 10 µA/cm2, Distal cathode, hind paw, field strength 100 mV/cm, 100 kΩ resistance, daily for 20 d Sciatic nerve transection and repair Enhanced motor axon regeneration
Román GC, et al. Exp. Neurol. (1987) DC, distal cathode implantation with a 10-µA for 3 wks Sciatic nerve transection and repair Increased number of myelinated axons
Zanakis MF, et al. Acupunct. Electrother. Res. (1990) DC, 1.4 µA (about 8 mV/cm field strength) to a nerve cuff Sciatic nerve crush Enhanced number of regenerating axons in the distal stump
Kerns JM, et al. Exp. Neurol. (1992) DC, 10 µA/cm2, Distal cathode Sciatic nerve crush No change in sciatic function index (SFI)
Pomeranz B, et al. Brain Res. (1993) DC of 10 µA, 200–270 kΩ resistor, stimulation for a month Sciatic nerve crush Improved electrophysiological outcomes
Al-Majed AA, et al. J. Neurosci. (2000) AC, proximal stump, 0.1 ms,3V, 20 Hz, 1 h immediately after repair and up to 2 wks Femoral nerve transection and repair Accelerated motor axons regeneration across repair site after 1 h of stimulation but no further benefits with chronic stimulation
Mendonça CA, et al. J. Neurosci. Methods (2003) DC, proximal stump, low-intensity continuous current circuit (1 µA), 1.5 V battery and a 1.3-MΩ resistor for 3 wks Sciatic nerve crush Improved SFI
Ahlborn P, et al. Exp. Neurol. (2007) AC, proximal stump, square 0.1-ms pulses, 20 Hz, 3–4 V, acute Femoral nerve transection Improved motor axon regeneration and behavioral recovery
Geremia NM, et al. Exp. Neurol. (2007) AC, proximal stump, 0.1 ms, 3V, 20 Hz, 1 h immediately after repair and up to 3 wks Femoral nerve transection and repair Improved sensory axon regeneration with acute stimulation but reduced benefits with chronic stimulation
Singh B, et al. J. Neurosurg. (2012) AC, proximal stump, 0.1 ms,3V, 20 Hz, 1 h immediately after repair Sciatic nerve transection and repair Improved axon regeneration and target reinnervation
Huang J, et al. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2013) AC (3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) applied proximally to the transected nerve while repairing (2, 4, 12 and 24 wks) Sciatic nerve transection and delayed repair Increased motoneurons and sensory neurons regeneration, improvement in CMAP and NCV up to 24 wks of delay
Zhang X, et al. Mol. Med. Rep. (2013) AC (3 V, 20 Hz, 1 h) applied proximally to the nerve Sciatic nerve crush Improved remyelination, axon diameter and electrophysiological measures
Calvey C, et al. J. Hand Surg. Am. (2014) A direct current of 24 V/m (24 mV, DC 1.5 mA), applied across the electrodes for 10 min and 60 min Sciatic nerve transection and repair Enhanced behavioral and histological recovery
Xu C, et al. PLoS One (2014) AC, proximal stump, 0.1 ms, 3 V, 20 Hz, delayed nerve repair after 1 d, 1 wk, 1 month and 2 months Sciatic nerve transection and repair at different time points Improved electrophysiology parameters but the impact reduced with the delay
Thompson NJ, et al. Dev. Neurobiol. (2014) AC, short (0.1 ms) pulses at 20 Hz, 1 h immediately before nerve transection Sciatic nerve transection and repair Enhanced axon regeneration