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Table 1 Summary of the systematic literature review on antiinflammatory effects of VNS treatment in animal models and human trials.

From: Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Inflammation: Systematic Review of Animal Models and Clinical Studies

  Ref Sex VNS site Design F (Hz) A (V) I (mA) Pulse (ms) Duration (min) Effect Persistence
Mice [11] F LCV C 20   0.8 0.5 0.5 A
  [12]   LCV C 5 1   2 20 (10 b/a LPS) C$$
   M   A 5 1   2 2 (1 b/a LPS)   
      5 1   2 0.5 (5 a/LPS)   
      30 1   0.5 0.5 (5 a/LPS)   
  [13] M RCV A 1   2 ? 10 b/ A
  [14]           
  [15] M RCV A    2   Intermittently for 10 A
  [16] M RCV A    2   10 A
  [17] M RCV A   5    15 or 20 A
  [18] M LCV C 5   0.05 1 10 C$$$
Rats [6] M R/LCV A 1 5   2 20 (10 b/ and 10 a/ LPS) A
  [19] M LCV A 2   2 0.3 10 q45 b/LPS A
  [8] M LCV A 5 5   2 3 = A
  [20] M LCV A 1 5   2 20 (10 b/ and 10 a/ LPS) A
  [21] M & F LCV C 20   0.25 500 0.5 q5 for 3 h per d from d 1 to d 6 A
  [22] M LCV A 1 5   2 20 a/ LPS A
  [23] M R heart A 5 2–6   1 15 b/ and 120/a A
  [24] M RCV A 8–10 2.5   0.5 40 A
  [25] M R/LCV A 1 5   2 15 b/ and a/ 6 h C$
  [26] M R/LCV A 1 5   2 20 a/ LPS A
  [27] M LCV A 5 10   2 20 a/ C
  [28] M RCV A 5 15   2 20 A
  [29] M RCV A 1 5   2 Either 20 starting 5 b/ LPS or 2 (1 b/ and 1 a/ LPS) A
  [30] - LCV A 10   0.0005 1s 0.3 b/ 45 a/LPS A
  [31] M LCV A 2   2 0.3 10 q45, starting right b/ LPS, until 4.5 h a/ LPS A
  [32] M RCV A 20   0.5 0.5 0.5 train q5 for 30 C
  [33]   LCV A 10   0.5 1000 0.02 with 500 µs bipolar stimul q0.3 for 10; repeat 10 a/ LPS for 45 b/ break of 3 h A
  [34] M RCV A 5 5    10 § C
  [35] F LCV C 20   1 10 3 h at same time every other day, beginning 1 wk after operation for 12 wks A
  [36] M RCV# A 25 7.2   1 2 q10 for 60 A
  [37] M RCV A 10 1.0–7.0 N/A 2 N/A A
Pigs [38] M R/LCV A 3   1 0.2   n/a  
Dogs [39] M and F RCV C 20   0.75–2.5 0.5 14 s on 12 s off continuously for 8 wks A
  [40] F RCV A 1 or 2   0.02–50 0.3 0.006 n/a  
Humans [41] M and F LCV C 1-145 - 0.25–4 in 0.25 steps 130–1000 7–270 s in 30 s steps C
  [9] M and F LCV C 30   0.75–1.75 500 0.5 on 5 s off for 3 months = A
  [10] M LCV* A 20 0–10   1 Continuously for 30 = C
  [42] M and F LCV A** 20   1 0.5 0.5 A
     C*** §§ 10   0.25–2 0.25 1  
  1. Abbreviations: F, frequency, Hz; A, amplitude, volt; I, intensity, milliampere; Pulse, duration of a VNS pulse; Duration, duration of VNS stimulation treatment; A, acute effect <24 h (on inflammation); C, chronic &gt;24 h (on the experimental endpoint); ↓, R of inflammation due to VNS; =, no effect; RCV, right cervical vagus; LCV, left cervical vagus
  2. *Catheter inserted in the left internal jugular vein at spinal level 5-C7, adjacent to the vagus nerve
  3. **Epilepsy cohort
  4. ***Rheumatoid arthritis cohort
  5. #Skin overlying the right cervical vagus nerve
  6. $Improvement of renal function at three days, return to control at five days
  7. §Reduced (except in α7nAChR knockout mice)
  8. §§Acute design for epilepsy cohort; chronic design for rheumatoid arthritis cohort
  9. $$48 h but not 72 h
  10. $$$VNS 10 min b/ ischemia resulted in no protection; protective effects for at least two days