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Fig. 2 | Bioelectronic Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Neuroimmunomodulation of tissue injury and disease: an expanding view of the inflammatory reflex pathway

Fig. 2

Another anti-inflammatory pathway elicited by afferent vagus nerve stimulation. Afferent vagus nerve stimulation can elicit an anti-inflammatory pathway involving sympathetic efferents through the central nervous system (CNS). In a model of joint inflammation, the local release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals within joints alleviates inflammation. On the other hand, the splanchnic sympathetic nerve seems to be important to suppress systemic inflammation after lipopolysaccharide administration. Direct target(s) of the splanchnic nerve is not clear. NTS, nucleus tractus solitarius

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