This image demonstrates in 12 patients with chronic stroke that the timing of †DCS improves smoothness of movement when applied before robot treatment, yet interferes with aiming and mean speed when applied during or after robot training. These effects are significant (26). The image is adapted from (26): V Giacobbe, HI Krebs, BT Volpe, A Pascual-Leone, A Rykman, G Zeiarati, F Fregni, L Dipietro, GW Thickbroom, DJ Edwards. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and robotic practice in chronic stroke: The dimension of timing. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;33:49–56. See https://doi.org/iospress.metapress.com/content/x219150u616h1078/.