NCAP reduces weight loss, disease activity level, and systemic and intestinal inflammatory mediator levels in TNBS colitis. Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had colitis induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS or received saline control, and were followed for 6 d. Rats then received VNS or sham VNS for 3 h per day from experimental d 1 to d 6 (0.25 mA, 20 Hz, 500-ms pulse width, 30 s on, 5 min off continuously). Body weight (A) and disease activity index (DAI) (B) are shown as mean ± SE. MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF and IL-6 were measured from d-6 colonic homogenates (C). *P < 0.05 versus the control group and VNS group; ΔP < 0.05 versus the TNBS group (B). MPO (U/mL), iNOS activity (U/mL), TNF-α (pg/mg tissue) and IL-6 levels after 6 d of VNS in TNBS rats. Data presented as mean ± SE. *P< 0.05 versus control group; #P< 0.05 versus TNBS group (C). Image adapted from a figure and a table in (46) (Involvement of MAPK/NF-κB Signaling in the Activation of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway in Experimental Colitis by Chronic Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Peng Sun, Kewen Zhou, Sheng Wang, Ping Li, Sijuan Chen, Guiping Lin, Yan Zhao, Tinghuai Wang. PLOS ONE. 2013:8:e69424. Permission not required for adaptation. Available from: https://doi.org/www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0069424).