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Table 1 CAP activation and/or vagotomy in preclinical rheumatoid arthritis models.

From: Neurostimulation of the Cholinergic Antiinflammatory Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Intervention Model Species Result Reference
Cervical vagotomy; and nAChR agonists nicotine or AR-R17779 CIA Mouse Vagotomy worsens and nAChR agonists improve arthritis score. nAChR agonists improve bone degradation, synovial inflammation, TNF. (48)
cJnAChR Knockout CIA Mouse Knockout worsens incidence and severity of arthritis, inflammation, joint destruction and proinflammatory cytokines. Decrease in the collagen-specific Th1-associated IgG2a, but not IgG1. (29)
Surgical vagus suspension CIA Rat Improves paw volume, arthritis score, bone erosions, histology, serum TNF. (31)
Vagus nerve stimulation CIA Rat Improves paw volume, arthritis score, histology, bone metabolic markers. (32)
Cervical vagotomy and nicotine CIA Mouse Vagotomy worsens and nicotine improves arthritis score, inflammation and bone destruction, TNF, IL-6 expression and HMGB1 translocation. (27)
Cervical vagotomy and nicotine CIA Mouse Vagotomy worsens and nicotine improves arthritis score; nicotine reduces Th17cells, IL-17A and RORyt expression; and nicotine increases IL-4 and GATA3 expression. (28)
  1. CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; HMGB1, high-mobility group protein B1; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IL, interleukin; RORγ, RAR-related orphan receptor γ; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; WT, wild type.