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Table 2 CAP activation and/or vagotomy in preclinical colitis models.

From: Neurostimulation of the Cholinergic Antiinflammatory Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Intervention Model Species Result Reference
Nicotine TNBS Rat Improves macroscopic colon score, MPO activity, histology. (43)
Nicotine TNBS Rat Improves clinical score, macroscopic colon score, MPO activity, histology, colonic tissue LTB4 and TNF levels. (49)
Nicotine IL-10 knockout Mouse Improves clinical score and histology in colon; worsens jejunal histology. (50)
Neostigmine DNBS Rat Improves clinical score, macroscopic colon score, MPO activity, histology. (51)
Vagotomy or nicotine DSS Mouse Vagotomy worsens and nicotine improves clinical score, macroscopic colon score, MPO activity, histology, colonic tissue IL-6, SAP. (52)
Vagotomy DNBS Mouse Vagotomy worsens clinical score, macroscopic colon score, MPO activity, histology, colonic tissue IL-6 and TNF, SAP (52)
nAChR agonist (AN) or antagonist (CHD) TNBS Mouse nAChR antagonist worsens and nAChR agonist improves histological scores, MPO, TNF and NF-κB in lamina propria mononuclear cells. (53)
Choline or α7nAchR antagonist (DMI) DSS or DSS with reactivation Mouse Choline decreases macroscopic scores, MPO, CRP IL-6 and IL-1β while α7nAchR antagonist worsens macroscopic scores and blocks therapeutic benefit of antidepressant. (54)
α7nAChR knockout ± vagotomy DSS Mouse Knockout and vagotomy worsen MPO, CRP IL-6 and IL-1β; and knockout prevents therapeutic benefit of choline. (54)
Vagotomy DSS Mouse Vagotomy worsens clinical and macroscopic scores, MPO activity; increases colonic NF-κB signaling; increases splenic tissue levels of TNF IL-6, MCP-1; and decreases CD4+FoxP+ Treg cells. Effect of vagotomy can be adoptively transferred via CD4+CD25 T cells. (55)
α7-nAchR agonist DSS or TNBS Mouse AR-R17779 and GSK 1345038A either are ineffective or worsen disease (44)
Nicotine Oxalazone or TNBS Mouse Oxalazone colitis improves; there is no change in TNBS colitis. (56)
  1. DSS, dextran sulfate sodium; MPO myeloperoxidase; DNBS/TNBS, dinitrobenzene/trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; LT, leukotriene; IL, interleukin; CD, Cluster of Differentiation; Fox, forkhead box; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; MCP monocyte chemotactic peptide; NF, nuclear factor; AN, anabaseine; CHD, chlorisondamine diiodide; DMI, desmethylimipramine; SAP serum amyloid P